1.8

  • 不是所有的人类都有语言:一个悲伤的案例

Genie 被父母锁在房间里,且从未被父母说过一句话,直到13岁被发现。
此后她不能学会把单词拼凑成无限可能的句子的系统。

  • 不是所有的东西都可以称作语言

语言学家创造的语言(eg:指环王、权游)很少成功。
另一方面,语言需要被小孩习得。如果让一个小孩去习得那些非自然的人工语言(相当于思维方式),可能会很糟糕。

1.10

  • 语言学家工作的场所

lib, 找 ref, 现在可以用 Ethnologue
bush, 采风
closet, 想
lab, 电脑-麦克风识别声音,以及心理学方法的研究
street, 日常运用

  • 6000 种语言
  • 印欧语系有五百个子类
  • 仏人虽然热衷统一化,但是仏境内有⑨种仏语
  • 1个quarter的语言不够1千人说,快咩绝了
  • what makes language distinct from one another turns out to be much more a social and political issue than a linguistic one

"A language is a dialect with an army and a navy." -Max Weinreich

  • 不能通过 mutual intelligibility 区分语言是因为识别是主观的,且存在 dialect continua

To illustrate, suppose you were to start from Berlin and walk to Amsterdam, covering about ten miles every day. You can be sure that the people who provided your breakfast each morning could understand (and be understood by) the people who served you supper that evening. Nonetheless, the German speakers at the beginning of your trip and the Dutch speakers at its end would have much more trouble, and certainly think of themselves as speaking two quite distinct (if related) languages.

  • FOXP2 基因被认为的人类进化获得语言能力有关
  • Human language 跟 animal 的区别

    • discrete infinity
    • displacement

      • now&here
      • past
      • abstract
    • joint attention
  • important for language

    • native speaker
    • can speak about basically everything
    • carried and recognized by a more or less well-defined group of human beings as their language
  • In what respect are bats and seals linguistically similar to humans?

    • produce new sounds

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